Attica (Greek: Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or Attikī́), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the modern day capital of Greece. The peninsula is projecting into the Aegean Sea, bordering on Boeotia to the north and Megaris to the west. The southern tip of the peninsula, known as Laurion, was an important mining region.
The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, and specifically the Golden Age of Athens during the classical period. Ancient Attica (Athens city-state) was divided into demoi or municipalities from the reform of Cleisthenes in 508/7 BC, grouped into three zones: urban (asty) in the region of Athens main city and Piraeus (port of Athens), coastal (paralia) along the coastline and inland (mesogeia) in the interior.
From 1834, when Athens was re-founded and named into the new Greek capital, people from other parts of Greece gradually began to repopulate the region of Attica. The most dramatic surge came with Greek refugees from Anatolia following the population exchanges between Greece and Turkey under the Treaty of Lausanne. Today, most of Attica is occupied by urban Athens. The modern Greek region of Attica includes classical Attica as well as the Saronic Islands, a small part of the Peloponnese around Troezen, and the Ionian Island of Kythira.
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